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Cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. Aggrawal, Anil. Narcotic Drugs. National Book Trust, India. (1995) The name, cocaine, comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix “ine,” forming “cocaine” and is both a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant.
The effects caused by the use of cocaine include euphoria, excitation, feelings of well-being, general arousal, increased sexual excitement, dizziness, self-absorbed, increased focus and alertness, mental clarity, increased talkativeness, motor restlessness, offsets fatigue, improved performance in some simple tasks, and loss of appetite. Higher doses may exhibit a pattern of psychosis with confused and disoriented behavior, delusions, hallucinations, irritability, fear, paranoia, antisocial behavior, and aggressiveness.
According to NHTSA the observed signs of impairment in driving performance have included subjects speeding, losing control of their vehicle, causing collisions, turning in front of other vehicles, high-risk behavior, inattentive driving, and poor impulse control. As the effects of cocaine wear off subjects may suffer from fatigue, depression, sleepiness, and inattention.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Pupil size is dilated and there is a slow reaction to light. Pulse rate, blood pressure elevated, and body temperature are elevated.
Carisoprodol is a centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose active metabolite is meprobamate. Carisoprodol is marketed in the United States under the brand name Soma, and in the United Kingdom and other countries under the brand names Sanoma and Carisoma.
The effects observed after consuming carisoprodol include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, confusion, disorientation, slowed thinking, lack of comprehension, drunken behavior, obtunded, coma.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus (in high doses) and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is normal to dilated and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are normal to lower. Other characteristic indicators may include slurred speech, drowsiness, disorientation, drunken behavior without the odor of alcohol, and generally poor performance on field sobriety tests.
Methamphetamine, or simply “Meth,” is a psychostimulant andsympathomimetic drug. It is a member of the family ofphenylethylamines and is used for weight loss and to maintain alertness, focus, motivation, and mental clarity for extended periods of time, and also for recreational purposes.
The effects of methamphetamine include euphoria, excitation, exhilaration, rapid flight of ideas, increased libido, rapid speech, motor restlessness, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, insomnia, reduced fatigue or drowsiness, increased alertness, heightened sense of well being, stereotypes behavior, feelings of increased physical strength, and poor impulse control. However, during the late phase of consumption of this drug the effects change and include fatigue, sleepiness with sudden starts, itching/picking/scratching, normal heart rate, and normal to small pupils which are reactive to light.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Pupil size is dilated and there is a slow reaction to light. Pulse rate and blood pressure is elevated and body temperature normal to lower.
Phencyclidine (full name is phenylcyclohexylpiperidine but is commonly initialized as PCP), also known as angel dust and other street names, is a dissociative drug formerly used as ananesthetic agent. PCP was first synthesized in 1926 and later tested after World War II as a surgical anesthetic.
The observed effects after consuming PCP include euphoria, calmness, feelings of strength and invulnerability, lethargy, disorientation, loss of coordination, distinct changes in body awareness, distorted sensory perceptions, impaired concentration, disordered thinking, illusions and hallucinations, agitation, combativeness or violence, memory loss, bizarre behavior, sedation, and stupor.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size and reaction to light are normal, which pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are elevated.
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Diacetylmorphine (better known as heroin) is another derivative of the opium poppy, and was synthesized from morphine in 1874 by C. R. Alder Wright, an English chemist working at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, England. Heroin was subsequently brought to market by the pharmaceutical giant Bayer, in 1898. From 1898 through to 1910, heroin was marketed as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant. Bayer marketed heroin as a cure for morphine addiction before it was discovered that it is rapidly metabolized into morphine, and as such, heroin was essentially a quicker acting form of morphine. Bayer was understandably embarrassed by this finding and it soon became an historical blunder for the company. Bayer lost some of its trademark rights to “heroin,” as it did with aspirin (and other drugs), under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles following the German defeat in World War I.
The effects created by heroin are very much the same as those created by the use of morphine and include euphoria and the feeling of well-being, relaxation, drowsiness, sedation, lethargy, disconnectedness, self-absorption, mental clouding, and delirium. When mixed with alcohol sedation, drowsiness, and decreased motor skills may occur. Laboratory studies have shown that morphine may cause sedation and significant psychomotor impairment for up to 4 hours following a single dose in normal individuals. Early effects may include slowed reaction time, depressed consciousness, sleepiness, and poor performance on divided attention and psychomotor tasks. Late effects may include inattentiveness, slowed reaction time, greater error rate in tests, poor concentration, distractibility, fatigue, and poor performance in psychomotor tests. Subjective feelings of sedation, sluggishness, fatigue, intoxication, and body sway have also been reported. According to NHTSA, in several driving under the influence case reports where the subjects tested positive for heroin, observations included slow driving, weaving, poor vehicle control, poor coordination, slow response to stimuli, delayed reactions, difficultly in following instructions, and falling asleep at the wheel. In the DUI context and field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Further, pupil size is constricted and there is little or no reaction to light. The subject’s pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are generally lower.
Eszopiclone, best known as Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepinehypnotic agent (sedative) used as a treatment for insomnia. Lunesta, along with other related drugs, including Ambien andSonata are the most commonly prescribed sedative hypnotics in the United State. It has been reported that people who have taken this prescription have engaged in activity such as driving, eating, or making phone calls and later having no memory of the activity. Lunesta can also cause side effects that impair thinking or reaction times.
Contact the Washington State Drug DUI Attorneys at the Law Firm of David N. Jolly for further information.
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Toluene, also known as methylbenzene, phenylmethane, and Toluol, is a clear water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell ofpaint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. Toluene is a common solvent, able to dissolve paints, paint thinners, silicone sealants, many chemical reactants, rubber, printing ink, adhesives (glues), lacquers,leather tanners, and disinfectants.
The observed effects after consuming dizziness, euphoria, grandiosity, floating sensation, drowsiness, reduced ability to concentrate, slowed reaction time, distorted perception of time and distance, confusion, weakness, fatigue, memory loss, delusions, and hallucinations.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus (in high doses), vertical gaze nystagmus (in high doses), and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is normal and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate and blood pressure are elevated while body temperature is normal.
Oxycodone is an opioid synthesized from opium-derived thebaine. It was developed in 1916 in Germany by Freund and Speyer of the University of Frankfurt, only a few years after pharmaceutical company Bayer had stopped the mass production of heroin due to addiction and abuse. It was hoped that a thebaine-derived drug would retain the analgesic effects of morphine and heroin with less addiction. The first clinical use of the drug was documented in 1917.
The drug was first introduced to the US market in 1939 and is the active ingredient in a number of pain medications commonly prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain, either with inert binders (e.g. OxyContin) or supplemental analgesics such as paracetamol (acetaminophen), (e.g. Percocet, Endocet, Tylox, Roxicet) or aspirin (e.g. Percodan, Endodan, Roxiprin). More recently, ibuprofen has been added to oxycodone under the name Combunox.
Hydrocodone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates codeine and thebaine. It is marketed, in its varying forms, under a number of trademarks, including Vicodin. Hydrocodone was first synthesized in Germany in 1920 and was approved by the FDA on March 23, 1943 for sale in the United States under the brand name Hycodan. http://www.fda.gov/
As a narcotic, hydrocodone relieves pain by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Common side effects that drivers should be concerned about include dizziness,lightheadedness, nausea, and drowsiness.
Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine and was developed by Dr. Craig Newlands of Wayne State University. It was then further developed by Parke-Davis (today a part of Pfizer) in 1962 as part of an effort to find a safer anesthetic alternative to phencyclidine (PCP), which was more likely to cause hallucinations, neurotoxicity and seizures. The drug was first given to American soldiers during the Vietnam War.
The observed effects after having consumed ketamine includes decreased awareness of general environment, sedation, dream-like state, vivid dreams, feelings of invulnerability, increased distractibility, disorientation, and subjects are generally uncommunicative. Delirium and hallucinations can be experienced after awakening from anesthesia.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size and reaction to light are normal while pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are elevated.
Morphine is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent inopium. Morphine is considered to be the prototypical opioid. Like other opioids (e.g.oxycodone, hydromorphone, and diacetylmorphine (heroin)), morphine acts directly on thecentral nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain.
The effects created by morphine include euphoria and the feeling of well-being, relaxation, drowsiness, sedation, lethargy, disconnectedness, self-absorption, mental clouding, and delirium. According to NHTSA, in several driving under the influence case reports where the subjects tested positive for morphine, observations included slow driving, weaving, poor vehicle control, poor coordination, slow response to stimuli, delayed reactions, difficultly in following instructions, and falling asleep at the wheel. In the DUI context and field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Further, pupil size is constricted and there is little or no reaction to light. The subject’s pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are generally lower.
Zaleplon (marketed under the brand name Sonata) is asedative/hypnotic mainly used for insomnia. It is anonbenzodiazepine hypnotic from the pyrazolopyrimidine class. Zaleplon is one of few sleep medications which have been found to not cause an increase in road traffic accidents, thus demonstrating a much higher safety profile than many otherhypnotics currently on the market. The side effects of Sonata are similar to the side effects of benzodiazepines, and its use may cause hallucinations, abnormal behavior, severe confusion, day-time drowsiness, dizziness or lightheadedness, unsteadiness and/or falls, double vision or other vision problems, agitation,headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or abdominal pain,depression, muscle weakness, tremor, vivid or abnormal dreamsand memory difficulties or amnesia. Sonata is habit-forming, meaning addiction or drug dependence may occur.
Hydroxybutyric acid, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, GHB, but commonly known as “the date rape drug,” is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all animals in small amounts. GHB was first synthesized in 1960 as an experimental GABA analog, and was classified as a food and dietary supplement and sold in health food stores in early 1990. GHB is illegal in many countries and is currently regulated in the US and is used to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy.
The effects observed after having consumed GHB are similar to those effects observed with alcohol consumption. These include relaxation, reduced inhibitions, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, inebriation, agitation, combativeness, and hallucinations.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus (in high doses), and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is generally dilated and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate and blood pressure are normal and body temperature is generally down.
Sedatives are substances that induce sedation by reducing “irritability or excitement.” At higher doses the user may experience slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes.
All Sedatives can cause physiological and psychological dependence when taken regularly over a period of time, even at therapeutic doses.
Sedatives are divided into barbiturates, benzodiazepines(clonazepam (Klonopin)), diazepam (Valium), and alprazolam(Xanax) are a few examples)), herbal sedatives (ie. kava,cannabis), solvent sedatives (ie.diethyl ether (Ether), ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage)), methyl trichloride (Chloroform),nonbenzodiazepine sedatives (eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon(Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien)), and uncategorized sedatives (ie.gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), diphenhydramine (Benadryl),methaqualone (Quaalude)).
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive drug and is one of the active ingredients used to prevent coughs in manyover-the-counter cold and cough medicines. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief topsychological applications. It is sold in syrup, tablet, and lozengeforms manufactured under several different brand names andgeneric labels. In its pure form, dextromethorphan occurs as a white powder.
The observed effects after consumption of DXM at recommended doses is minimal, although at higher recreational doses effects may include acute euphoria, elevated mood, dissociation of mind from body, creative dream-like experiences, and increased perceptual awareness. Other effects include disorientation, confusion, pupil dilation, and altered time perception, visual and auditory hallucinations, and decreased sexual functioning.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus (at high doses), and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is normal to dilated and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate and blood pressure are down and body temperature is normal.
Lysergic acid diethylamide, otherwise known as LSD, LSD-25, or simply acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family. Its unusual psychological effects which include visuals of colored patterns behind the eyes in the mind, a sense of time distorting, and crawling geometric patterns have made it one of the most widely known psychedelic drugs. It has been used mainly as a recreational drug, and as a tool to supplement various practices for transcendence, meditation, psychonautics, art projects, and illicit (formerly legal) psychedelic therapy.
The effects after consuming LSD are unpredictable and will depend on the dose ingested, the user’s personality and mood, expectations and the surroundings. However, the effects typically include hallucinations, increased color perception, altered mental state, thought disorders, temporary psychosis, delusions, body image changes, and impaired depth, time and space perceptions. Users may feel several emotions at once or swing rapidly from one emotion to another. “Bad trips” may consist of severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings, fear of losing control, and despair.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Pupil size is dilated and the reaction to light is normal. Pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are elevated.
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Diazepam, a benzodiazepine, was approved for use in 1960 and in 1963 its improved version, valium, was released and became very popular helping its manufacturer, Roche, become a pharmaceutical industry giant. Valium is two and a half times more potent than its predecessor, chlordiazepoxide, which it quickly surpassed in terms of sales. After this initial success, other pharmaceutical companies began to introduce other benzodiazepine derivatives.
The effects observed after consumption of valium at low doses include sleepiness, drowsiness, confusion, and some loss of intergraded memory. Diazepam can produce a state of intoxication similar to that of alcohol, including slurred speech, disorientation, and drunken behavior.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus (in high doses), and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is normal and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate and blood pressure are down and body temperature is normal.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is a psychoactive drug extracted from the plant “Cannabis sativa.” The herbal form of the drug consists of dried mature flowers and subtending leaves of pistillate (female) plants and the major biologically active chemical compound in cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), commonly referred to as THC.
The effects caused by the use of marijuana include relaxation, euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, sense of well-being, disorientation, altered time and space perception, lack of concentration, impaired learning and memory, alterations in thought formation and expression, drowsiness, sedation, mood changes such as panic reactions and paranoia, and a more vivid sense of taste, sight, smell, and hearing. Additionally, when taken concurrently with alcohol, marijuana is more likely to be a traffic safety risk factor than when consumed alone.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus and vertical gaze nystagmus are not present although lack of convergence is present. Pupil size is normal to dilated and the reaction to light is normal to slow. Pulse rate and blood pressure are elevated and body temperature normal to elevated.
Marijuana DUIs are now a hot topic in Washington State. Washington was the first to make marijuana DUIs a specific component of the DUI statute and therefore it is illegal to drive in Washington with 5 nanograms or more of THC in the person's body. David Jolly is the author of the Marijuana DUI Handbook and the one to turn to if you need a Marijuana DUI attorney.
It is illegal to drive while under the influence of any drug in the State of Washington. Drug DUI attorneys in Washington have been fighting for clarity regarding the illegality of such behavior and until recently, the laws were a little vague. The DUI statute in Washington has incorporated language that specifically makes it illegal to drive a motor vehicle if you are under the influence of an illegal drug or any prescription drug. Therefore if you do take prescription drugs you must be very certain you are aware of any sedative effect and your tolerance levels before driving. To confirm you are under the influence of a drug law enforcement will attempt to have you examined by a DRE and try to get a sample of your blood. If you have been cited with this type of criminal charge give the drug DUI attorneys at the Law Firm of David N. Jolly a call today.
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is a chemical mainly used as anantihistamine, antiemetic, sedative, and hypnotic. It is produced and marketed under the trade name Benadryl by McNeil-PPC (a division of Johnson & Johnson) in the U.S. & Canada, and Dimedrol in other countries. It is also found in the name-brand products Nytol and Unisom, though some Unisom products contain doxylamine instead.
The observed effects of having consumed diphenhydramine may result in marked sedation, including drowsiness, reduced wakefulness, altered mood, impaired cognitive and psychomotor performance.
In the DUI context relating to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus (at high doses), and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is normal, dilatation may occur and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are normal.
Methadone is a synthetic opioid used medically as an analgesic, antitussive and as a maintenance anti-addictive for use in patients on opioids. The drug was developed in 1937 in Nazi Germany and although chemically unlike morphine or heroin, methadone also acts on the opioid receptors and thus produces similar effects. The drug was given the trade name “dolophine” from the Latin dolor meaning pain
The effects created by the use of methadone include drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, lightheadedness, mood swings (euphoria to dysphoria), depressed reflexes, altered sensory perception, stupor, and coma.
The drug manufacturer cautions that methadone may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, and that the sedative effects of the drug may be enhanced by concurrent use of other CNS depressants, including alcohol.
In the DUI context and field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Pupil size is constricted and there is little to no reaction to light. Pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature are lower.
Zolpidem, or known popularly as Ambien, is a prescription medication used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. Some users have reported unexplainedsleepwalking while using Ambien, and a few have reported driving, binge eating, sleep talking, and performing other daily tasks while sleeping.
Driving while under the drug's influence is generally considered far more dangerous than the average impaired driver due to the diminished motor controls and delusions that may affect the driver. Residual 'hangover' effects such as sleepiness, impaired psychomotor skills may persist into the next day which may impair the ability of users to drive safely.
Studies suggest that the use of Ambien may impair driving skills with a resultant increased risk of road traffic accidents.
The effects observed after having consumed Ambien are sleep induction, drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, amnesia, confusion, concentration difficulties, and memory impairment.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus (for high doses) and lack of convergence are present. Pupil size is normal and reaction to light is slow. Pulse rate and blood pressure are down while body temperature is normal. Other characteristic indicators may include slow and slurred speech, and generally poor performance on field sobriety tests.
Alprazolam, also known under the trade name Xanax, is a short-acting drug of the benzodiazepine class used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and anxiety associated with moderatedepression.
Dangers in the context of DUI would be side effects that include drowsiness (common), dizziness (common), light headedness(common), fatigue, unsteadiness and impaired coordination,vertigo, slurred speech, and short-term memory loss and impairment of memory functions.
Washington State incorporated specific language into its DUI statute in December 2012 making it a crime to drive a motor vehicle with 5 nanograms or more of THC (marijuana) in the driver's blood. It must be remembered that 5 nanograms is not very much, so be careful. Do not make the mistake of believing that it is acceptable to drive after consuming marijuana just because the drug is now legal in this State. As marijuana DUI attorneys we continue to recommend that you do not agree to any field sobriety tests or the DRE examination if stopped after consuming marijuana. David Jolly has authored the first Marijuana DUI book so if you find yourself having to deal with such an offense please contact one of our experienced marijuana DUI attorneys.
If you have been arrested for a drug DUI do not give up. You can fight this assuming you hire the right Washington drug DUI attorney. Give the lawyer who wrote the book on Drug DUIs a call to discuss your case.
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine), or commonly known as “ecstasy” (or abbreviated E, X, or XTC), is a semisynthetic member of the amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs, a subclass of the phenethylamines.
The effects after consuming Ecstacy include mild intoxication, relaxation, euphoria, an excited calm or peace, feelings of well-being, increase in physical and emotional energy, increased sociability and closeness, heightened sensitivity, increased responsiveness to touch, changes in perception, and empathy. At higher doses, agitation, panic attacks, and illusory or hallucinatory experiences may occur.
In the DUI context as it relates to field sobriety testing, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and lack of convergence are not present. Pupil size is dilated and there is a slow reaction to light. Pulse rate is elevated while blood pressure and body temperature are normal to elevated.
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